Ultrastructural and submicroscopic changes in the pancreas on the background of experimental diabetes mellitus (EDM) correction by exenatide were studied. Diabetes mellitus was modeled by a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin administration. The animals with the level of blood glucose 12-16 mmol/l were taken for the experiment. From the 14th day of the experiment the animals were injected exenatide daily. The histological preparations were stained with haematoxylin-eosin, according to Mallory in our modification . Electronic-microscopic and biochemical methods of study were used. The volumetric share of islets in the pancreas, the part of the area occupied by insulocytes and glucagonocytes in the islets were determined. During the development of EDM the decrease of the area occupied by insulocytes, and the reduction of the area of the islet were observed. On the background of daily administration of exenatide the positive dynamics of insulocytes’ area recovery, the appearance of some “ductal” insulocytes were noted, reorganization of cellular elements of pancreatic islet was observed: reduction of insulocytes’ hypertrophy, some endocrinocytes with no signs of damage, reduction of lymphocytic infiltration of the pancreatic parenchyma. Submicroscopically against the background of medical correction the stabilization of mitochondrial membranes and crests, reduction of kariopknotic nuclei of В-cells were noted. Thus, the results of the study indicate the exenatide ability to stimulate the regeneration of islets of Langerhans.
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