Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible loss of central vision in people over 60 years of age. One of the most important risk factors for AMD is decrease in macular pigment optical density (MPOD). Search for new possible ways of (MPOD) improvement in AMD treatment is very important.
The objective of the research was to study the indices of macular pigment optical density in patients with the dry form of AMD after two courses of low-energy light therapy and conservative treatment.
Material and methods. The main group (MG) included 87 patients (146 eyes) who underwent two courses of low-energy light therapy (LLT) in combination with two courses of conservative treatment in hospital for 10 days at intervals of six months each. The control group (CG) consisted of 75 patients (135 eyes) who underwent only two courses of conservative therapy in the hospital for 10 days at intervals of six months each. Observations were conducted before, after treatment, after 1, 3 and 6 months after each course of treatment. The total period of follow-up was 1 year. LLT was performed using the device Spektra Light (Canada). All patients were generally conducted eye examination. MPOD was measured using densitometer “Maculux praxis” (Germany) by heterochromatic flicker photometry.
Results. MPOD index increased from 0.249 ± 0.011 units to 0.360 ± 0.016 units, by 0.111 ± 0.014 units (44.6%) in 1 month after the first course of treatment, up to 0.344 ± 0.015 units, by 0.095 ± 0.013 units (38.2%) after 3 months, up to 0.321 ± 0.014 units, by 0.072 ± 0.013 (28.9%) in 6 months (p<0.05) in patients of MG. Stabilization of the index from 0.248 ± 0.012 units before the treatment and 0.243 ± 0.011 6 months after the first course of treatment (p>0.05) occurred in patients of the KG. MPOD indices increased from 0.321 ± 0.014 units to 0.431 ± 0.017 units, by 0.110 ± 0.016 units (34.3%) in 1 month after the second course of treatment, up to 0.412 ± 0.017 units, by 0.091 ± 0.016 units (28.4%) in 3 months, and up to 0.388 ± 0.016 units, by 0.067 ± 0.015 (20.9%) in 6 months (p<0.05) in patients of the MG. Stabilization of the index from 0.243 ± 0.011 units before the treatment and 0.237 ± 0.011 in 6 months after the second course of treatment (p>0.05) was observed in patients of KG.
Conclusions. 1. Statistically significant increase in macular pigment optical density from 0.249 ± 0.011 units to 0.388 ± 0.016, by 0.139 ± 0.014 units (by 55.8%) was noted in patients who underwent two courses of low-energy light therapy in combination with a course of conservative treatment. Macular pigment optical density index did not change in the patients in the control group. 2. Two courses of low-energy light therapy in combination with a course of conservative treatment increases the concentration of macular pigment, as evidenced by the increase in indices of macular pigment optical density in comparison with conservative treatment, during which indices stabilize.
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