Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease: Choice of Myocardial Revascularization Strategy
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Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Fractional Blood Flow Reserve
Acute Myocardial Infarction

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Seredyuk, N., Matlakh, A., Vandzhura, Y., Bielinskyi, M., Skakun, O., & Denina, R. (2020). Multi-Vessel Coronary Artery Disease: Choice of Myocardial Revascularization Strategy. Galician Medical Journal, 27(4), E202041.


Multi-vessel coronary artery disease is quite a common state, which is often diagnosed by coronary angiography in patients with both stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes. Major difficulties in percutaneous coronary intervention include stent thrombosis and the need for antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor). Stent thrombosis leads to the recurrence of myocardial infarction and may occur within the first few hours after percutaneous coronary intervention. The use of dual antiplatelet therapy, especially that combined with low-molecular-weight heparin in the first days after myocardial infarction, poses a risk of bleeding, which often occurs in real clinical practice. Among P2Y12  inhibitors, ticagrelor causes bleeding somewhat more frequently than clopidogrel. A case of multi-vessel coronary artery disease is described in this paper. Coronary angiography revealed right-dominant circulation; occlusion of the proximal and medial segments of the right coronary artery, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 0; stenosis of the left main coronary artery (50-60%), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 2; diffuse stenosis of the medial and distal segments of the left anterior descending artery, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 1; stenosis of the proximal segment of the left circumflex artery (> 75%), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade 1. The patient underwent percutaneous coronary intervention; the stents were implanted in the infarct-dependent right coronary artery. The clinical course was complicated by early stent thrombosis with subsequent thrombus extraction; a day later melena developed. Bleeding was stopped, the intensity of antithrombotic therapy was reduced: the combination of aspirin and ticagrelor was replaced by the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel. Six weeks after stenting of the infarct-dependent coronary artery, complete myocardial revascularization (hybrid intervention) was performed: coronary artery bypass grafting [the left internal mammary artery → the left anterior descending artery], coronary autogenous bypass grafting [the aorta → the right coronary artery and the aorta → the left circumflex artery]. The role of fractional flow reserve or instantaneous wave-free ratio-controlled complete myocardial revascularization techniques is discussed. The following algorithm for myocardial revascularization was used: percutaneous coronary intervention for the right coronary artery + coronary artery bypass grafting-3: the left internal mammary artery → the left anterior descending artery, the aorta → the left circumflex artery, the aorta → the right coronary artery.
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