Background. Emphysematous osteomyelitis and emphysematous pyelonephritis are both rare entities responsible for a high death rate. The first is defined by the presence of intravertebral or intraosseous gas, while the second is infectious damage to the renal parenchyma and perilesional tissues caused by gas-producing microorganisms and is, therefore, characterized by the formation of gas. Imaging plays a crucial role in making a rapid diagnosis and, thus, the initiation of the necessary treatment.
Case Report. A 66-year-old woman with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension presented with the altered general condition and flank pain for 5 days, associated with fever and chills. The patient’s vital signs were remarkable with a disturbed biological workup, which led to emergency abdominal and pelvic computed tomography scanning that revealed emphysematous osteomyelitis of the spine and emphysematous pyelonephritis.
Conclusions. The coexistence of emphysematous pyelonephritis and emphysematous osteomyelitis is a rare life-threatening entity, occurring in patients with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus. Computed tomography is currently the gold standard in making the positive diagnosis, staging, for a quick and better management and, thus, a favorable prognosis.
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