Combined Effects of Cadmium- and Cyanide-Contaminated Diet on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Different Tissues of Rats
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Ekayoda, O., Kadiri, H. E., & Ohwokevwo, O. A. (2022). Combined Effects of Cadmium- and Cyanide-Contaminated Diet on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Different Tissues of Rats. Galician Medical Journal, 29(4), E202244.


Background. Several toxicants present simultaneously in the environment have combined toxicological effects. In addition, various xenobiotics have distinct effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in animal cells and tissues.

The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of cadmium (Cd) and cyanide (CN) through the food chain on some antioxidant indices in the tissues (lungs, testes, heart, and brain) of male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods. The study included sixty African catfish allocated to four groups, each comprising fifteen fish, treated with potassium cyanide (KCN) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2), held at a temperature of 25°C in a 100-litre fish tank aquarium with water contaminated with 0.4 mg of both cyanide and cadmium/100 ml of water. All the fish were later killed, dried, and used to prepare diet for experimental animals. Twenty male rats divided into four groups, each comprising five rats, were used for this study as well, and fed for 28 days as follows: Group A - control diet; Group B - cyanide-contaminated diet; Group C - cadmium-contaminated diet; Group D - diet contaminated with cyanide + cadmium. Subsequently, they were sacrificed. Biochemical analysis of the tissues excised from the rats was done.

Results. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation level and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione activities in the lungs, testes, heart, and brain of rats fed a catfish diet containing both cyanide and cadmium as compared to controls. In addition, contaminated diet altered acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain, glutathione peroxidase activity, glutathione-S-transferase activity, and glutathione reductase activity in the tissues of experimental rats.

Conclusions. Cadmium and cyanide, via the food chain, induce oxidative stress in the lungs, testes, heart, and brain of rats.
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