Visualization in Anatomical Sciences for Effective Teaching and Learning
Full Text


Medical Education
Teaching Tools
Technological Advancement

How to Cite

Pushpa, N. B., & Ravi, K. S. (2023). Visualization in Anatomical Sciences for Effective Teaching and Learning. Galician Medical Journal, 30(2), E202321.


Anatomy is one of the basic subjects of medical science. Medical students gain detailed knowledge of human body by dissecting cadavers. Hence, cadaveric dissection has become an essential tool in teaching and learning anatomy. In anatomy, visualization plays an important role in understanding the spatial orientation of structures. Due to technological advancement and a shortage of cadavers, there is a need to look for various complementary tools which can provide an adequate visualization of bodily structures. This issue was very well understood and reflected during the recent pandemic when cadaveric dissection was substituted by experimenting with various teaching tools. In this paper, we have tried to briefly describe the various options that can complement/supplement dissection and assist in self-directed learning.
Full Text


Keenan ID, ben Awadh A. Integrating 3D visualisation technologies in undergraduate anatomy education. In: Rea P, editor. Biomedical Visualisation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2019. p.39–53. Available from:

McLachlan JC, Bligh J, Bradley P, Searle J. Teaching anatomy without cadavers. Medical Education. 2004;38(4):418–424. Available from:

Ravi KS. Dead body management in times of Covid‐19 and its potential impact on the availability of cadavers for medical education in India. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2020;13(3):316–317. Available from:

Silén C, Wirell S, Kvist J, Nylander E, Smedby Ö. Advanced 3D visualization in student-centred medical education. Medical Teacher. 2008;30(5):e115–e124. Available from:

Guillot A, Champely S, Batier C, Thiriet P, Collet C. Relationship between spatial abilities, mental rotation and functional anatomy learning. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2006;12(4):491–507. Available from:

Jasani SK, Saks NS. Utilizing visual art to enhance the clinical observation skills of medical students. Medical Teacher. 2013;35(7):e1327–e1331. Available from:

Lenzen M, Li M, Malik A, Pomponi F, Sun Y-Y, Wiedmann T, et al. Global socio-economic losses and environmental gains from the Coronavirus pandemic. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(7):e0235654. Available from:

Kumar S. Second wave of COVID-19: emergency situation in India. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2021;28(7):taab082. Available from:

Ruiz JG, Cook DA, Levinson AJ. Computer animations in medical education: a critical literature review. Medical Education. 2009;43(9):838–846. Available from:

Smith CF, Pawlina W. A journey like no other: Anatomy 2020! Anatomical Sciences Education. 2021;14(1):5–7. Available from:

Lodge JM, Hansen L, Cottrell D. Modality preference and learning style theories: rethinking the role of sensory modality in learning. Learning: Research and Practice. 2015;2(1):4–17. Available from:

Hall E. The tenacity of learning styles: a response to Lodge, Hansen, and Cottrell. Learning: Research and Practice. 2016;2(1):18–26. Available from:

Estai M, Bunt S. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: a critical review. Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2016;208:151–157. Available from:

Moore CM, Lowe C, Lawrence J, Borchers P. Developing observational skills and knowledge of anatomical relationships in an art and anatomy workshop using plastinated specimens. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2011;4(5):294–301. Available from:

Chekrouni N, Kleipool RP, de Bakker BS. The impact of using three-dimensional digital models of human embryos in the biomedical curriculum. Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2020;227:151430. Available from:

Basavanna PN, Ravishankar MV, Arora D. Anatomy lives in the dissection hall: Post‐Covid‐19 perception of students. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2022;15(1):83–85. Available from:

Dev P, Montgomery K, Senger S, Heinrichs WL, Srivastava S, Waldron K. Simulated medical learning environments on the Internet. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2002;9(5):437–447. Available from:

Clunie L, Morris NP, Joynes VCT, Pickering JD. How comprehensive are research studies investigating the efficacy of technology-enhanced learning resources in anatomy education? A systematic review. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2017;11(3):303–319. Available from:

Kong X, Nie L, Zhang H, Wang Z, Ye Q, Tang L, et al. Do 3D printing models improve anatomical teaching about hepatic segments to medical students? A randomized controlled study. World Journal of Surgery. 2016;40(8):1969–1976. Available from:

O’Reilly MK, Reese S, Herlihy T, Geoghegan T, Cantwell CP, Feeney RNM, et al. Fabrication and assessment of 3D printed anatomical models of the lower limb for anatomical teaching and femoral vessel access training in medicine. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2015;9(1):71–79. Available from:

Bogomolova K, Ham IJM, Dankbaar MEW, Broek WW, Hovius SER, Hage JA, et al. The effect of stereoscopic augmented reality visualization on learning anatomy and the modifying effect of visual‐spatial abilities: a double‐center randomized controlled trial. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2020;13(5):558–567. Available from:

Chen S, Zhu J, Cheng C, Pan Z, Liu L, Du J, et al. Can virtual reality improve traditional anatomy education programmes? A mixed-methods study on the use of a 3D skull model. BMC Medical Education. 2020;20:395. Available from:

Labranche L, Wilson TD, Terrell M, Kulesza RJ. Learning in stereo: the relationship between spatial ability and 3D digital anatomy models. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2021;15(2):291–303. Available from:

Owolabi J, Bekele A. Implementation of innovative educational technologies in teaching of anatomy and basic medical sciences during the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country: the COVID-19 silver lining? Advances in Medical Education and Practice. 2021;12:619–625. Available from:

Choudhury B, Gouldsborough I, Gabriel S. Use of interactive sessions and e-learning in teaching anatomy to first-year optometry students. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2010;3(1):39–45. Available from:

Webb AL, Choi S. Interactive radiological anatomy eLearning solution for first year medical students: development, integration, and impact on learning. Anatomical Sciences Education. 2013;7(5):350–360. Available from:

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.